Dear Liz: My son is about to graduate from college and, as a present, I want to use $10,000 to start an IRA for him. But which is better? A Roth or a standard IRA?
Answer: Congratulations to both of you! Starting a retirement account is a great idea, but you should be aware of the numerous rules that limit who can contribute and how much.
Let’s start with the annual contribution limit, which for 2022 is $6,000 for people under 50. (People 50 and older can make an additional $1,000 “catch up” contribution.) Also, your son needs to have earned income — such as wages, salary or self-employment income — that is at least equal to the size of the contribution you want to make. In other words, he needs to earn $6,000 for you to contribute $6,000. If he’s about to start a full-time job, that probably won’t be an issue, but if he’s not working, or working only part time before starting graduate school, that might further limit how much you can contribute.
For all of those reasons, a Roth IRA contribution may be best. He won’t get an upfront tax deduction but withdrawals in retirement will be tax free. He can withdraw Roth contributions at any time without taxes or penalties, so the Roth can serve as a de facto emergency fund. Obviously, it’s better to leave the money alone to grow, but having access to the cash could be helpful while he builds a regular emergency fund.
Liz Weston, Certified Financial Planner, is a personal finance columnist for NerdWallet. Questions may be sent to her at 3940 Laurel Canyon, No. 238, Studio City, CA 91604, or by using the “Contact” form at asklizweston.com.